Imagen: Derek Gavey

El riesgo financiero se refiere a la probabilidad de que ocurra un evento que tenga consecuencias financieras negativas. Siempre que realizamos una operación existe el riesgo de que se produzca un suceso adverso, eliminarlo totalmente es imposible.

Lo que sí podemos y debemos hacer si queremos ser constantes es limitar la probabilidad que se produzca ese suceso y acotar el riesgo al invertir en un valor. Veamos los diferentes tipos que existen cuando realizamos una operación:

1. Riesgo de mercado, asociado a las fluctuaciones de los mercados financieros, y en el que se distinguen tres: el riesgo de cambio (consecuencia de la volatilidad del mercado de divisas), el riesgo de tipo de interés (producido por las variaciones de los tipos de interés) y el riesgo de volatilidad (se refiere específicamente al nivel de frecuencia e intensidad de los cambios del precio de un activo.

2. Riesgo de crédito, es la posibilidad de que una de las partes de un contrato financiero no asuma sus obligaciones. Éste es casi inexistente ya que actualmente las contrataciones se hacen de forma electrónica.

3. Riesgo de liquidez, se refiere a la necesidad de obtener contrapartida y no encontrarla en el mercado. Debemos tener en cuenta este aspecto antes de comprar o vender un valor, ya que si el mercado no es líquido obtendremos dificultades para cerrar nuestra posición al precio deseado.

4. Riesgo operativo, entendido como la posibilidad de ocurrencia de pérdidas financieras, originadas por fallos o insuficiencias de procesos, personas, sistemas internos, tecnología, y en la presencia de eventos externos imprevistos.

Debemos ser conscientes del riesgo que asumimos en cada operación y nuestra obligación como operadores es acotarlo en la medida en que sea posible y asumirlo antes de realizar cualquier transacción.

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